Archives in Biosciences & Health Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina en-US Archives in Biosciences & Health Effects of nanocapsules containing all-trans-retinoic acid under hemolytic and coagulation activity <p>The chemotherapeutic all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) used in the treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia has adverse effects on its oral administration, with which we incorporated a system of drugs, the nanocapsules, in order to have a possible improvement in solubility, photosensitivity, lower toxicity, generating pharmacological efficacy. The objective was to evaluate and compare the hemolytic and coagulation activity of the free drug (AL), nanoencapsulated (NA) and the white nanocapsules (NB) by analyzing the results of hemolysis, Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). We developed a prospective study of treatments at different concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 μg/mL. For the first test, all concentrations showed hemolytic activity, but when compared to NA with ATRA it is observed that these carriers induced lower hemolytic toxicity. In the PT test the nanoparticles at the two lowest concentrations remained in the physiological range (12 - 15 seconds). For the APTT test the three lowest concentrations remained within the control (25 - 35 seconds). Thus, we believe there is a promising benefit of using these nanoparticles developed and no doubt further studies will be performed to confirm the responses obtained here.</p> Walter Paixão de Sousa Filho Shayenne Schaeffer Homrich Priscila Marquezan Copetti Diulle Spat Peres Diulie Valente de Souza Roberta Cougo Riéffel Alencar Kolinski Machado Aline Ferreira Ourique Michele Rorato Sagrillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 1 14 10.18593/abh.16726 Epidemiology of cervix cancer in Brazil (2005-2015): study of mortality and hospital intervention rates <p>Cervical neoplasia has high morbidity and mortality and is the main female gynecological neoplasia, but it is susceptible to early detection and cure. A major challenge for developing countries such as Brazil is the expansion of prevention programs, which becomes more effective when the epidemiology is known. The objective of this study was to conduct an epidemiological survey to evaluate the Brazilian panorama of this neoplasm. A temporal aggregate study was performed using the mortality and hospital admission rates for cervical neoplasia throughout the Brazilian territory during the years 2005 to 2015, data obtained through DATASUS and IBGE. During the years 2005 to 2015, there was a significant drop (p&lt;0.05) in hospital admission rates in the 0-19, 20-39, 40-59, 60-79 years, with an average fall of 36 % and a death increase in the age group 20-39 years. The North region had a significant increase in death in the range ≥ 80 years, 140%, p&lt;0.02. The mean mortality rate in Brazil was 5.14, with a 95% CI of 5.01 to 5.27. Cervical neoplasia is still present in Brazil, although mortality has a tendency to decrease, this tendency is unequally distributed in Brazil, with the north and northeast regions showing the highest rates. Better public policies are fundamental.</p> Victor Antônio Kuiava Eduardo Ottobelli Chielle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 1 16 10.18593/abh.17091 Tucumã extracts decreases PML/RARΑ gene expression in NB4/APL cell line <p>Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a cancer pharmacologically treated with all-<em>trans</em> retinoic acid (ATRA), although well tolerated by most patients, some develop toxicity to ATRA, Differentiation Syndrome. The Amazon Biome has several fruits and oil plants rich in micronutrients, particularly carotenoids as the fruit tucumã (<em>Astrocaryum aculeatum</em>). This study analyzed the antitumor and cytoprotective activity of tucumã with and without concomitant exposure of ATRA in high concentration mimicking the toxicity of differentiation syndrome, as the potential cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic in an APL cell line. The cultured NB4 cells were exposed to ethanolic extracts of tucumã and to synergism with extracts and ATRA. Determination of proliferation, cell viability, caspases 1, 3, 8 and cell differentiation by nested RT-qPCR. The ATRA control had a strong inhibitory effect and toxicity as expected. The extracts also reduced cell proliferation by triggering apoptosis in concentration-dependent and reversing chromosome translocation, especially the lowest tested concentration of tucumã pulp extract. In the synergism, extracts act to maintain the levels of viability and apoptosis equal to the ATRA control but in contrast to drug that causes death and destruction of the genetic material, tucumã demonstrated a reduction of the gene expression indicating a possible protection against the toxicity of high concentrations of ATRA. These results suggest that fruits rich in retinoid molecules may have a cytotoxic effect against APL cells and reduced concentrations of carotenoids may act as cytoprotectors in APL cells treated with high concentrations of ATRA promoting cellular/molecular differentiation.</p> Priscila Marquezan Copetti Pablo Sebastian de Britto Oliveira Luis Felipe Machado Garcia Rodrigo Almeida Vaucher Marta Medeiros Frescura Duarte Luciana Fontanari Krause Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz Aline Ferreira Ourique Michele Rorato Sagrillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 1 22 10.18593/abh.17200 Human adipose-derived stem cells obtained from lipoaspirates are highly susceptible to hydrogen peroxide mediated cytogenotoxicity <p>There is evidence that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> can induce the proliferation, migration, and regeneration of stem cells, as well as that of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). This could be useful to expand the possible uses of ASCs in therapeutic applications. &nbsp;However, the safety profile of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>use in stem cells is not clear yet. Therefore, the present study evaluated the acute cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of different concentrations of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> on ASCs obtained from human lipoaspirates. The ASCs were treated with 1–1000 μM H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>for two hours. Cell viability was evaluated by double-strand DNA determination. Apoptosis induction was analyzed measuring active levels of caspases 1, 3 and 8. Biochemical oxidative stress markers were analyzed and genotoxic effects were assessed by DNA comet assay. All H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>concentrations increased ASC mortality rates with approximately 100% mortality achieved at ≥ 200 μM. Active caspases 1, 3 and 8, oxidative stress, as well as oxidative damage as assessed by lipid peroxidation increased dose‐dependently. There was also an approximate 50% increase in catalase levels in cells exposed to all H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>tested concentrations. H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> concentrations of ≥ 10 μM were genotoxic. These results suggest that ASCs are highly sensitive to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> exposition. In addition, DNA damage in the surviving cells may affect their proliferative and differentiation capacity, as well as their safety profile for therapeutic use.</p> Alencar Kolinski Machado Sabrina Guastavino Homrich Cíntia Corte Real Rodrigues Verônica Farina Azzolin Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte Danieli Monteiro Pillar Luana Suéling Lenz Tais Cristina Unfer Diulie Valente de Souza Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-15 2019-02-15 1 18 10.18593/abh.17060 Açai (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.), an Amazonian fruit has antitumor effects on prostate cancer cells <p>Açai (<em>Euterpe oleracea, </em>Mart.) is fruit broadly consumed in the world. From its chemical matrix is possible that açai could has some cytotoxic effect against prostate cancer (PCa). To test this hypothesis using an <em>in vitro</em> PCa model DU145 cell. Additionally, potential synergism between açai and docetaxel (DO), a chemotherapic drug used to treat advanced PCa was also evaluated. Cells were exposed an açai hydro alcoholic extract at different concentrations (1 to 1000 μg/mL) and its effect on viability, apoptosis and cellular proliferation was determined by MTT assay, growth cell, clonogenic assays and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Differential modulation of <em>Bcl-2 and BAX </em>genes was also determined by Pcr quantitative in real time (qRT-PCR) analysis. Açai at lower concentrations (1-10 μg/mL) presented significant cytotoxic and antiproliferative action against PCa cells decreasing frequency of S phase cycle. Probably, this effect was associated with its strong down-regulation of <em>Bcl-2</em> gene. However, açai did not contribute to improve Docetaxel effect´s on PCa cells. Açai’s PCa antitumor effects could be related to elevate concentrations of orientin plus vitexin, p-coumaric acid, apigenin and catechins present its chemical matrix, which are molecules with antitumor effect previously described in the literature.</p> Micheli Lamberti Jobim Fernanda Barbisan Milena Fortuna Cibele Ferreira Teixeira Aline Augusti Boligon Euler Esteves Ribeiro Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 1 18 10.18593/abh.16966 Pesticides: classifications, exposure and risks to human health <p>Pesticides are used in the control and prevention of pests, improving the productivity and the quality of agricultural production. The adoption of the Brazilian agricultural model, which uses pesticides on a large scale and indiscriminately, has been worrying public authorities about their impacts on human health and environmental sustainability. Thus, studies that contribute to a better understanding of agrochemicals and their effects on ecosystems and human health are timely. The aim was to investigate the history of the production and use of pesticides, their classifications, sources of exposure and their risks to human health. The research was carried out through literature review in databases to verify scientific information about the history of pesticides, structural and toxicological classifications, sources of exposure and their risks to human health. The use of pesticides dates back many years. During the nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century, some chemicals nowadays used was pesticides were used for public health or for war purposes. About the classification of pesticides, due to the different biological targets, the agrochemicals market is segmented into different action targets (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides). Pesticides can be classified as contact, ingestion or systemic according to the mode of action. As for the chemical structure, the main classes of pesticides are organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates. The toxicity of pesticides ranges from low toxic to extremely toxic. Exposure to pesticides can occur directly through occupational exposure, or indirectly, through environmental exposure and food. The impacts on human health are divided into acute and chronic form. The prolonged human exposure to pesticides may result in neurological, reproductive, teratogenic and immunological disorders. The results presented in this literature review contribute to a better understanding of agrochemicals and their effects on human health.</p> Grazielle Castagna Cezimbra Weis Audrei de Oliveira Alves Charles Elias Assmann Beatriz da Silva Rosa Bonadiman Ijoni Hilda Costabeber ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 1 16 10.18593/abh.17454 Properties of chitosan matrix composites with hydroxyapatite and carbon nanotubes, and their use in bone tissue engineering <p dir="ltr">There is a growing demand for bone grafts by various clinical sectors, such as aesthetic procedures, treatment of injuries and dentistry, the use of synthetic materials is shown to be good due to the availability and the reduction of risks that their use brings, among the materials that are used in the clinic can be cited the chitosan matrix composites (CHI) with hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which uses materials that are already used in the clinic HA and CHI with an innovative material in the sector the CNTs. The aim was to analyze and compare data from the current state of the art of CHI matrix composites with HA and CNTs applied in bone tissue engineering. This study is based on a review of the specialized literature on articles in online scientific journals, with thematic issues related to the properties of the biocomposite on board. The influence of the use on the composite properties generated by the use of CNTs together with the HA in the CHI matrix, for biomedical applications, more specifically in bone tissue engineering, was observed. It was observed that with subtle increases of CNTs in the CH composite Ha composites, the bioactivity, osteoconduction, antibacterial activity, mechanical properties of the composites, changes in the nanotexturas, and a homogeneous distribution of the materials occur, potentiality of its use in more than one application within bone tissue engineering. In the present study it was possible to observe that CHI matrix composites with HA and CNTs present a combination of properties highlighting the potential for application in bone tissue engineering.</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> João Victor Freitas Barros Correia Matheus Freitas Barros Correia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 1 10 10.18593/abh.19226