Pesticides: classifications, exposure and risks to human health

Keywords: Agrochemicals, Class, Contamination, Health disorders

Abstract

Pesticides are used in the control and prevention of pests, improving the productivity and the quality of agricultural production. The adoption of the Brazilian agricultural model, which uses pesticides on a large scale and indiscriminately, has been worrying public authorities about their impacts on human health and environmental sustainability. Thus, studies that contribute to a better understanding of agrochemicals and their effects on ecosystems and human health are timely. The aim was to investigate the history of the production and use of pesticides, their classifications, sources of exposure and their risks to human health. The research was carried out through literature review in databases to verify scientific information about the history of pesticides, structural and toxicological classifications, sources of exposure and their risks to human health. The use of pesticides dates back many years. During the nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century, some chemicals nowadays used was pesticides were used for public health or for war purposes. About the classification of pesticides, due to the different biological targets, the agrochemicals market is segmented into different action targets (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides). Pesticides can be classified as contact, ingestion or systemic according to the mode of action. As for the chemical structure, the main classes of pesticides are organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates. The toxicity of pesticides ranges from low toxic to extremely toxic. Exposure to pesticides can occur directly through occupational exposure, or indirectly, through environmental exposure and food. The impacts on human health are divided into acute and chronic form. The prolonged human exposure to pesticides may result in neurological, reproductive, teratogenic and immunological disorders. The results presented in this literature review contribute to a better understanding of agrochemicals and their effects on human health.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Grazielle Castagna Cezimbra Weis, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)

Nutricionista. Mestre em Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos.

References

González-Rodríguez RM, Rial-Otero R, Cacho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J. Occurrence of fungicide and insecticide residues in trade samples of leafy vegetables. Food Chem. 2008; 107(3):1342-7.

Brasil. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Segurança Química. Agrotóxicos. Brasília; 2013. [cited 2018 May 16]. Available from: http://www.mma.gov.br/seguranca-quimica/agrotoxicos

Bastos LHPB, Cardoso MHWM. Possíveis fontes de contaminação do alimento leite, por agrotóxicos, e estudos de monitoramento de seus resíduos: uma revisão nacional. Cad. Saúde Colet. 2011; 19(1):51-60.

Carneiro FF, Augusto LGS, Rigotto RM, Friedrich K, Búrigo AC. Dossiê ABRASCO: um alerta sobre os impactos dos agrotóxicos na saúde. 1. ed. Rio de Janeiro: EPSJV; São Paulo: Expressão Popular, 2015.

Pignati WA, Souza e Lima FAN, Correa MLM, Barbosa JR, Leão LHC, Pignatti MG. Distribuição espacial do uso de agrotóxicos no Brasil: uma ferramenta para a Vigilância em Saúde. Ciênc. Saúde Colet. 2017; 22(10):3281-93.

Barbosa LCAB. Os pesticidas, o homem e o meio ambiente. 1. ed. Viçosa: Editora UFV; 2004.

Larini L. Toxicologia. 3. ed. São Paulo: Editora Manole; 1999.

Franco R, Li S, Rodriguez-Rocha H, Burns M, Panayiotidis MI. Molecular Mechanisms of Pesticide-Induced Neurotoxicity: Relevance to Parkinson’s Disease. Chem.-Biol. Interact. 2010; 188(2):289-300.

Ma J, Li X. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histo¬pathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate. Chemosphere 2015; 128(1):293 8.

Kim KH, Kabir E, Jahan SA. Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects. Sci Total Environ. 2017; 575(1):525-35.

Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Seminário Mercado de Agrotóxico e Classificação. Brasília, DF: Anvisa; 2012 [cited 2018 May 18]. Available from: http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/wps/content/anvisa+portal/anvisa/sala+de+imprensa/menu+-+noticias+anos/2012+noticias/seminario+volta+a+discutir+mercado+de+agrotoxicos+em+2012.

Silva MFO, Costa LM. A indústria de defensivos agrícolas. Química BNDES Setorial 35, 2012 [cited 2018 May 16]. Available from: http://bit.do/bndes35

Sharma D, Nagpal A, Pakade YB, Katnoria JK. Analytical methods for estimation of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a review. Talanta 2010; 82(4):1077-89.

Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos (PARA), dados da coleta e análise de 2001 a 2007. Brasília: Anvisa, 2008. [cited 2018 May 15]. Available from: www.anvisa.gov.br

Alves MIR, Antoniosi Filho NR, Oliveira LG, Furtado STF. Avaliação da contaminação por pesticidas organoclorados em recursos hídricos do Estado de Goiás. Rev. Bras. Recur. Hídricos 2010; 15(1):67-74.

Santos VMR, Donnici CL. Compostos organofosforados pentavalentes: histórico, métodos sintéticos de preparação e aplicações como inseticidas e agentes antitumorais. Quím Nova 2007; 30(1):159-70.

Santos MAT, Areas MA, Reyes FGR. Piretróides: uma visão geral. Alim. Nutri. 2007; 18(3):339-49.

Sanches SM, Silva CHTP, Campos SX, Vieira WM. Pesticidas e seus respectivos riscos associados à contaminação da água. Rev. Ecotox. Meio Ambient. 2003; 13(1):53-8.

World Health Organization. The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 1990-1991. 1991 [cited 2018 May 15]. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1990/WHO_PCS_90.1_REV.1.pdf

Copplestone JF. The development of the WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard. Bull. World Health Organ. 1988; 66(5):545-51.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 1987 [cited 2018 May 10]. Available from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/

Food and Agriculture Organization. Statistics Division. Food and nutrition in numbers. 2014 [cited 2018 May 14]. Available from: http://apps.fao.org

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Censo Agropecuário 2006. 2006 [cited 2018 May 08]. Available from: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/agropecuaria/censoagro/brasil_2006/Brasil_censoagro2006.pdf

Anderson SE, Meade BJ. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals. Environ. Health. Insights 2014; 8(1):51-62.

Pinheiro A, Moraes JCS, Silva MR. Pesticidas no perfil de solos em áreas de plantação de cebolas em Ituporanga, SC. Rev. Bras. Eng. Agric. Ambient. 2011; 15(5):533-8.

Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos (PARA), dados da coleta e análise de 2010. Brasília, DF: Anvisa; 2011 [cited 2018 May 6]. Available from: www.anvisa.gov.br

Granella V, Ventorini CG, Pigatto GM, Nornberg JL, Costabeber IH. Resíduos de agrotóxicos em leites pasteurizados orgânicos e convencionais. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 2013; 34(4):1731-40.

Pirsaheb M, Limoee M, Namdari F, Khamutian R. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review. Med. J. Islam. Repub. Iran. 2015; 29(1):1-10.

Gangemi S, Gofita E, Costa C, Teodoro M, Briguglio G, Nikitovic D, et al. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(4):1012-20.

WHO. The WHO Recomended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guideline to Classification. 2009 [cited 2018 May 22]. Available from: http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/pesticides_hazard_2009.pdf

Rebelo FM, Caldas ED, Heliodoro VO, Rebelo RM. Intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Distrito Federal, Brasil, de 2004 a 2007- Análise da notificação ao Centro de Informação e Assistência Toxicológica. Ciênc. Saúde Colet. 2011; 16(8):3493-502.

Malaspina FG, Zinilise ML, Bueno PC. Perfil epidemiológico das intoxicações por agrotóxicos no Brasil, no período de 1995 a 2010. Cad Saúde Colet. 2011; 19(4):425-34.

Fassa G, Faria NM, Meucci RD, Fiori NS, Miranda VI, Facchini LA. A. Green Tobacco Sickness Among Tobacco Farmers in Southern Brazil. Am J Ind Med. 2014; 57(6):223-300.

Riley P, Cotter J, Contiero M, Watts M. Herbicide Tolerance and GM crops: Why the World should be Ready to Round Up Glyphosate. GM Freeze and Greenpeace; 2011 [cited 2018 May 20]. Available from: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/publications/reports/Herbicide-tolerance-and-GM-crops/

Moisan F, Spinosi J, Delabre L, Gourlet V, Mazurie JL, Bénatru I, et al. Association of Parkinson's disease and its subtypes with agricultural pesticide exposures in men: a case–control study in France. Environ Health Perspect. 2015; 123(11):1123-9.

James KA, Hall DA. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease. Int J Toxicol. 2015; 34(3):266-73.

Raafat N, Abass MA, Salem HM. Malathion exposure and insulin resistance among a group of farmers in Al Sharkia gover¬no rate. Clin Biochem. 2012; 45(18):1591 5.

Malekirad AA, Faghih M, Mirabdollahi M, Kiani M, Fathi A, Abdollahi M. Neurocognitive, mental health, and glucose disorders in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Arh. Hig. Rada. Toksikol. 2013; 64(1):1 8.

Van Maele-Fabry G, Libotte V, Willems J, Lison D. Review and meta analysis of risk estimates for prostate cancer in pesticide manufacturing workers. Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17(4):353 73.

Antwi SO, Eckert EC, Sabague CV, Leof ER, Hawthorne KM, Bamlet WR, et al. Exposure to environmental chemicals and heavy metals, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2015; 26(11):1583 91.

Fenga C. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer. Biomed Rep. 2016; 4(3):282 92.

Costa C, Gangemi S, Giambó F, Rapisarda V, Caccamo D, Fenga C. Oxidative stress biomarkers and paraoxonase1 polymorphism frequency in farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides. Mol Med. 2015; 12(4):6353 7.

Medina Díaz IM, Ponce-Ruiz N, Ramírez-Chávez B, Rojas-García AE, Barrón-Vivanco BS, Elizondo G, et al. Downregulation of human para¬oxonase 1 (PON1) by organophosphate pesticides in HepG2 cells. Environ Toxicol. 2016; 32(2):490-500.

Published
28-06-2019
How to Cite
Castagna Cezimbra Weis, G., de Oliveira Alves, A., Assmann, C., da Silva Rosa Bonadiman, B., & Costabeber, I. (2019). Pesticides: classifications, exposure and risks to human health. Archives in Biosciences & Health, 1(1), 29-44. https://doi.org/10.18593/abh.17454
Section
Articles - Original research